Concorde


The Concorde is a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner, a supersonic transport (SST). It was a product of an Anglo-French government treaty, combining the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued for 27 years. Among other destinations, Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London Heathrow (British Airways) and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (Air France) to New York JFK and Washington Dulles, profitably flying these routes at record speeds, in less than half the time of other airliners. With only 20 aircraft built, the development phase represented a substantial economic loss. Additionally, Air France and British Airways were subsidised by their governments to buy the aircraft. As a result of the type’s only crash on 25 July 2000, economic effects arising from the 11 September 2001 attacks, and other factors, operations ceased on 24 October 2003. The last retirement flight occurred on 26 November 2003.[3] Regarded by many as an aviation icon, Concorde has acquired an unusual nomenclature for an aircraft. In common usage in the United Kingdom, the type is known as "Concorde" rather than "the Concorde" or "a Concorde".

For high speed and optimasation of flight:

Double-delta (ogee/ogival) shaped wings

Variable engine air intake system controlled by digital computers

Supercruise capability

Thrust-by-wire engines, predecessor of today’s FADEC-controlled engines

Droop-nose section for better landing visibility

For weight-saving and enhanced performance:

Mach 2.04 (~2,170 kilometres per hour / 1,350 mph) cruising speed for optimum fuel consumption (supersonic drag minimum, although turbojet engines are more efficient at high speed)

Mainly aluminium construction for low weight and conventional manufacture (higher speeds would have ruled out aluminium)

Full-regime autopilot and autothrottle allowing "hands off" control of the aircraft from climbout to landing

Fully electrically-controlled analogue fly-by-wire flight controls systems

High-pressure hydraulic system of 28 MPa (4,000 lbf/in²) for lighter hydraulic components

Complex Air Data Computer (ADC) for the automated monitoring and transmission of aerodynamic measurements (total pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, side-slip).

Fully electrically-controlled analogue brake-by-wire system

Pitch trim by shifting fuel around the fuselage for centre-of-gravity control

Parts made using "sculpture milling" from single alloy billet, reducing the part-number count while saving weight and adding strength

Lack of an Auxiliary power unit, as Concorde would visit large airports where a ground air start cart would be available. 

General characteristics

Crew: 3 (pilot, co-pilot, and flight engineer)
Capacity: 92–120 passengers
(128 in high-density layout)[215]
Length: 202 ft 4 in (61.66 m)
Wingspan: 84 ft 0 in (25.6 m)
Height: 40 ft 0 in (12.2 m)
Fuselage internal length: 129 feet 0 inches (39.32 m)
Fuselage width: maximum of 9 feet 5 inches (2.87 m) external 8 feet 7 inches (2.62 m) internal
Fuselage height: maximum of 10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m) external 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) internal)
Wing area: 3,856 ft2 (358.25 m2)
Empty weight: 173,500 lb (78,700 kg)
Useful load: 245,000 lb (111,130 kg)
Powerplant: 4× Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593 Mk 610 afterburning turbojets
Dry thrust: 32,000 lbf (140 kN) each
Thrust with afterburner: 38,050 lbf (169 kN) each
Maximum fuel load: 210,940 pounds (95,680 kg)
Maximum taxiing weight: 412,000 pounds (187,000 kg)
Performance

Maximum speed: Mach 2.2 (≈1,450 mph, 2,330 km/h)
Cruise speed: Mach 2.02 (≈1,320 mph)
Range: 3,900 nmi (4,500 mi, 7,250 km)
Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,300 m)
Rate of climb: 5,000 ft/min. (25.41 m/s)
lift-to-drag: Low speed– 3.94, Approach– 4.35, 250 kn, 10,000 ft– 9.27, Mach 0.94– 11.47, Mach 2.04– 7.14
Fuel consumption: 46.85 lb/mi (13.2 kg/km) operating for maximum range
Thrust/weight: 0.373
Maximum nose tip temperature: 260 °F (127 °C)



Gorman Aviation Inc.
James L. (Jim) Gorman
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Website: www.gormanaviation.com

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